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An E10 mandate is in place in 4 provinces and 27 cities, but production has been constrained and, historically, no blending was allowed to take place outside of these areas.58 This limitation was eased in 2016, however, and some stockpiled grain was released for ethanol production in line with plans to boost domestic ethanol production.59Elsewhere in Asia, ethanol production increased 3.9% in Thailand to 1.2 billion litres, and in India it reached 0.9 billion litres, encouraged by stronger policy support in the form of mandates.60In Europe, the next-largest producing region, ethanol production fell 6% to 4.8 billion litres in 2016.61 Production fell sharply (by 14%) in France, one of Europe’s largest producers, due to a poor grain harvest, but grew strongly in Hungary (38%) and the United Kingdom (23%).62Biodiesel production is more geographically diverse than ethanol, with production spread among many countries.
The leading countries for production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesel were the United States (18% of global production), Brazil (12%), and Indonesia, Germany and Argentina (each with 10%).63 Following a significant decrease in 2015, when output was down 6.5% to 28.7 billion litres, global production rose 7.5% in 2016 to 30.8 billion litres.64 The increase was due mainly to restored production levels in Indonesia and Argentina and to significant increases in North America; US biodiesel production rose 15% in 2016, reaching 5.5 billion litres in response to improved opportunities for diesel within the RFS2.65 In Canada, production rose 19% to 0.4 billion litres.66By contrast, biodiesel production in Brazil fell 3% to 3.8 billion litres, despite an increase in the blending mandate.67 The reduction probably resulted from a decline in demand for diesel consumption linked to a reduced level of business activity.68 In Argentina, biodiesel production recovered from a fall in 2015, rising 43% to 3.0 billion litres.69 This expansion was stimulated by increased domestic demand (which accounts for around 45% of production) and improved market prospects in the United States and Peru.70European biodiesel production declined 5% to 10.7 billion litres.71 Germany was again the largest European producer (3.0 billion litres), followed by France (1.5 billion litres).72 Production fell by 11% in both of these countries but increased in Spain (1.1 billion litres, up 1%) and Poland (0.9 billion litres, up 8%).73In Asia, after a significant decline to 1.7 billion litres in 2015, Indonesian production rose 76% to 3.0 billion litres in 2016, boosted by a number of measures aimed at stimulating a domestic market and at making Indonesia the region’s largest producer again.74 China’s biodiesel production fell an estimated 10%, to 0.3 billion litres, due to reduced diesel fuel use (linked to a slowdown in industrial activity) and an absence of widespread blending mandates.75Global production of HVO grew some 22% from 4.9 billion litres to 5.9 billion litres.76 Production was concentrated in the Netherlands, the United States, Singapore and Finland.77The production and consumption of biomethane as a transport fuel also continued to increase during the year.
The country’s capacity, which grew rapidly in 2015, rose 5% in 2016, to 13.9 GW.45 Generation also rose 5%, to 51 TWh.46 Over 80% of the biomass-based electricity generation in Brazil is fuelled by bagasse, which is produced in large quantities in sugar production.47In 2016, global biofuels production, which closely tracks demand, increased around 2% compared to 2015, reaching 135 billion litres.48 This increase was due largely to a rebound in biodiesel production after a decline in 2015.
The United States and Brazil remained the largest biofuels producers by far, accounting for 70% of all biofuels between them, followed by Germany, Argentina, China and Indonesia.49 An estimated 72% of biofuel production (in energy terms) was fuel ethanol, 23% was biodiesel, and 4% was hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO).50 (Global production of fuel ethanol was almost unchanged between 20 at approximately 99 billion litres.51 The United States and Brazil maintained their leading roles in ethanol production with 59% and 27%, respectively, of global production in 2016.52 China, Canada and Thailand were the next largest producers.53US ethanol production rose 3.5% to 58 billion litres during the year.54 Domestic demand was supported by the annual volume requirements under the US Environmental Production Agency’s (US EPA) final Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) allocations.
Bioenergy consumption and investment in new capacity are supported by policy in many countries.
The heat also can be co-generated with electricity via combined heat and power (CHP) systems, and distributed from larger production facilities by district energy systems to provide heating (and in some cases cooling) to residential, commercial and industrial customers.Demand in the industrial sector reached some 13.8 million tonnes in 2016.84 A similar quantity (around 14 million tonnes) of pellets went to heating markets (individual houses and district heating), notably in Italy, Germany and Sweden.85 The wood pellet heating market has grown steadily at a rate of nearly 1 million tonnes per year over a 10-year period.86The United States is the largest exporter of wood pellets.In 2016, US manufacturers produced approximately 6.9 million tonnes of wood pellets and exported 4.8 million tonnes.87 During the first half of 2016, 85% of exported pellets were sold to the UK Drax plant.88 Canadian exports also rose 47% in 2016 to 2.5 million tonnes.89 Latvia, Europe’s largest producer, exported 1.9 million tonnes mainly to Denmark and the United Kingdom, as well as to Sweden and Italy.90Along with some large-scale plants designed to provide supply chain security to particular users (such as Drax), the pellet industry mostly comprises independent producers and is based around sawmill operations.91 For example, 142 pellet plants are operational in the United States and 58 in Canada.92 However, there are signs of industry consolidation.The cement industry also used larger volumes of waste fuels (estimated at 0.5 petajoules (PJ)) in 2016 relative to previous years.19The principal regions for industrial bio-heat are Asia (e.g., bagasse, rice husks, straw and cotton stalks in India) and South America (particularly Brazil, where bioenergy from agricultural and wood residues is used to produce heat in the food, tobacco, and pulp and paper industries, and bioenergy from bagasse is used in the sugar and alcohol industries).20 North America is the next largest user: in Canada, 22% of industrial heat was provided by bioenergy in 2016, mostly in the pulp and paper industry.21 There are signs of reduced use of bioenergy in North America, with stronger growth in Asia, reflecting changes in production patterns in key industry sectors, especially pulp and paper.22In the buildings sector, the United States is the largest consumer of modern biomass for heat.
Despite low oil prices, the US market for woody biomass and pellet boilers remained stable in 2016.23Europe is the largest consumer of bio-heat by region.For example, around 4.9 million household and village-scale biogas plants are now present in India, fuelled mostly by cattle dung and agricultural wastes.30Global bio-power capacity increased an estimated 6% in 2016, to 112 GW.31 Generation rose 6% to 504 terawatt-hours (TWh).32 The leading country for electricity generation from biomass in 2016 was the United States (68 TWh), followed by China (54 TWh), Germany (52 TWh), Brazil (51 TWh), Japan (38 TWh), India and the United Kingdom (both 30 TWh).33 (Although the United States remained the largest producer of electricity from biomass sources, generation fell 2% in 2016 to 68 TWh, down from 2015 levels of 69 TWh, as existing capacity faced increasing price competition from alternative renewable generation sources under the Renewable Portfolio Standards of a number of states.34 However US bio-power capacity in operation reportedly increased by 197 MW (0.5%) to 16.8 GW through the installation of 51 small-scale generation plants.35In Europe, growth in electricity generation from both solid biomass and biogas continued in 2016, driven by the Renewable Energy Directive.36 In Germany, Europe’s largest producer of electricity from biomass, total bio-power capacity increased 2%, to 7.6 GW, and generation was up 2.5% to 52 TWh.37 Elsewhere in Europe, the United Kingdom’s bio-power capacity increased 6% to 5.6 GW, due mainly to large-scale generation and to continuing growth in biogas production for electricity; however, generation was up only 1% because increases in output from solid biomass and anaerobic digestion were offset by reductions in generation from landfill gas.38 In Poland, the capacity auction schemes with dedicated tranches for municipal solid waste (MSW) plants and for biogas-based generation stimulated the deployment of new bio-power capacity.